What Is a Heart Attack?

A heart attack happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked and the heart can’t get oxygen. If blood flow isn’t restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to die.

Heart attacks are a leading killer of both men and women in the United States. The good news is that excellent treatments are available for heart attacks. These treatments can save lives and prevent disabilities.

Heart attack treatment works best when it’s given right after symptoms occur. If you think you or someone else is having a heart attack (even if you’re not fully sure), call9–1–1 right away.

What are the heart valves?

There are four valves which control the blood flow through the heart. They all consist of two or three flaps which swing open to allow blood through with each heart beat, and swing closed to prevent blood going back in the wrong direction.

Deoxygenated (blue) blood returning from the body collects in the right atrium. It flows to the right ventricle through the ‘tricuspid valve’. It is then pumped through the ‘pulmonary valve’ into the pulmonary artery on its way to the lungs. Oxygenated (red) blood returning from the lungs collects in the left atrium and flows through the ‘mitral valve’ into the left ventricle. It is then pumped through the ‘aortic valve’ into the aorta and to the body.

What is meant by the term ‘congenital heart disease’?

  • Laser resurfacing uses a laser light to heat, damage, or destroy the upper layers of the skin. This can tighten the skin or cause new skin to grow. It is typically used to remove or improve the appearance ofwrinkles, brown spots, shallow scars (from acne, surgery, or trauma), and sometimes, the appearance of small veins. Tattoos are removed with surgery or a laser that breaks down the color into fragments. These fragments are removed by your immune system.
  • Chemical peel uses a chemical solution to remove the top layers of skin, allowing new skin to grow. It is most often used to remove wrinkles, superficial skin growths, shallow scars, pigment changes in the skin, and other skin problems.
  • Dermabrasion uses a fine wire brush or a diamond wheel with rough edges to remove the upper layers of the skin, allowing new skin to grow. It may be used to treat acne scars and wrinkles around the mouth or to treat an enlarged nose (rhinophymacamera.gif) caused by rosaceacamera.gif (facial inflammation and redness).Microdermabrasion uses a different technique to treat just the top layers of the skin.
  • Filler injections are used to smooth wrinkles or pitted scars in the skin. They are also used to make the lips fuller. Fillers can restore volume and structure that is lost due to age or weight loss. When injected under the skin, a filler raises or puffs up that area. This goes away with time.
  • Botox injections use a protein that weakens the muscles of the face to reduce wrinkles. The effect is temporary, lasting about 3 to 4 months.
  • Sclerotherapy reduces or removes the appearance of small varicose veins and spider veins. In sclerotherapy, a chemical is injected into a vein to damage and scar the inside lining of the vein, which causes the vein to close.
  • Laser hair removal and electrolysis permanently remove unwanted hair such as facial hair. In laser hair removal, light treatments are used to heat and destroy hair follicles. This reduces the number of body hairs. In electrolysis, an electric current is applied to the hair root, which heats and destroys the hair follicle. Hair is not able to grow back in this area.
  • Medical tattooing uses tattoo ink to change the look of a medical problem. For example, it can be used after breast surgery to create the look of a darker nipple and areola. Medical tattooing can also be used to darken white skin patches (vitiligo) and scarred skin.

How does the normal heart work?

Cosmetic surgery is performed to reshape normal structures of the body in order to improve appearance and self-esteem. Cosmetic surgery is usually not covered by health insurance because it is elective.

Reconstructive surgery is performed on abnormal structures of the body caused by congenital defects, developmental abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors or disease. In general, reconstructive surgery is performed to improve function, but may also be completed to approximate a normal appearance.

Reconstructive surgery is typically covered by most health insurance policies, although coverage for specific procedures and levels of coverage may vary greatly.